In 2 or more independent groups, when the outcome variable is ordinal and the independent variable is nominal, we can not compare the mean values between the groups. However, we can compare the medians between the groups.
In SPSS, we can compare the median between 2 or more independent groups by the following steps:
. Open the dataset and identify the independent and dependent variables to use median test. Here, I use the "Employee Data.sav" which is in the installation directory of IBM-SPSS. Here, educational level is regarded as "dependent variable" which is a ordinal variable. Similarly, minority classification is regarded as "independent variable" with the two categories "yes" and "no" coded as 1 and 0 which is a nominal variable.
. Now, go to analyze, non-parametric tests and independent samples
. Then you see the following dialog box. Click objective and select "compare medians across groups".
Click on fields and you see the following dialog box. Move the dependent variable in test fields and independent variable in groups.
. Click on settings and you see the following dialog box. Under choose tests, select customize tests and tick mark "median test (k samples)" and select the method of multiple comparison. By default, it is set to all pairwise comparison.
Select test options and put the desired level of significance and confidence level. By default, it is set 5% level of significance at 95% CI.
Exclude or include (by default, it is excluded) the user missing values.
Click on Run and you see the following output.
from the output, it is clear that the median educational level varies across the minority classifications with P value=0.013 which is less than 0.05. So, we reject the null hypothesis.
If you want to show the contingency table of medians between the minority classifications, follow the following steps.
. Go to analyze, non-parametric tests and legacy dialogs and click on k independent samples.
. Then you see the following dialog box. Move the dependent variable to the test variable list. Move the independent variable to the grouping variable list. Select median under the test type. then click on define range.
after you click on define range, you see the following dialog box and use the numeric codes for the nominal variable (i.e. independent variable) Put the upper and lower limit of codes used for the independent variable (Here, the codes for the independent variable i.e. minority are 0 and 1 in my dataset so, I put the minimum value as 0 and maximum value as 1 and click continue.
after that click on ok and you get the following output.
Here, you can see a contingency table of educational level (classified as greater than median and smaller than median) and minority classification as well as the P value after Yate's continuity correction i.e. 0.013. Compare it with the output in step 8 above.
Hope you enjoyed the tutorial. Thank you and see you in the next tutorial. Share it with your peers if you enjoyed!!
Note: This tutorial is made with reference to IBM-SPSS 24 and there might be differences in older versions!
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